町家：主屋 10.8mX7.8m ２階建て、切妻造、平入、桟瓦葺、正面切妻造突出／明治初年
Tsukinuke-cho, Koromodana Sanjo agaru, Nakagyo, Kyoto
Traditional machiya wooden townhouse:
Main building: 10.8m × 7.8m. Two-story Kiritsuma gable roof structure with Hirairi entrance (*1) and Sangawarabuki corrugated tiled roof / Meiji 1
Guest house: 7m × 11.9m. Two-story Kiritsuma gable roof structure with Hirairi entrance and Sangawarabuki corrugated tiled roof / Taisho 4
Tea house: A single-story Irimoya hipped roof structure with Sangawarabuki corrugated tiled roof. Consists of a four-and-a-half tatami mat tea room, a small kitchen etc. / Showa 4
(*1) Hirairi entrance: A main entrance installed on the side which runs parallel to the roof ridge.
Chion-sha was formerly a large townhouse with 23m width entrance facing the east on Koromodana Street, owned by Senkichi Nishimura Kichiemon.
It consists of a Daihei style (*2) main building, which seems to have been rebuilt after a massive fire in Genji in 1864, and a two-story guest house with three rooms and a tea house.
(*2) Daihei style: An architectural style which features a building facing the street, but is separated from the street itself by a wall or a fence.
When it was rebuilt after a large fire in Genji, there was just a building in the south of the current site 15.2m width. It was a typical Daihei style structure, which included a fence in front and a main building about 7.6m behind the fence. There was also an entrance building between the fence and the main building. A sliding door was installed in the south part of the front gate and in the back of the door, a front garden and a side entrance to the main building were placed. (The main entrance used to be placed in front side of the side entrance.)
The entrance building is said to be rebuilt in Meiji 34. It's supposed to have consisted of a guest room, a reception hall and an entrance space arranged vertically from Koromodana Street. The east side wall of the building was integrated with the fence and the projecting lattice window was installed into the fence.
The main building used to be a two-story Kiritsuma gable roof structure (10.8m × 7.8m) with a Hirairi entrance at that time. There were dirt floor in the south part of the building and one tatami room with 7.6m width in the north. The cedar square pillars were used as an axis of the building and cedar bark pillars were partly used as well. On the back (west) of the building, a warehouse used to be placed (the south side warehouse of two existing warehouses), which was relocated here when the guest house was built in Taisho 4.
The guest house is located north of the main building and is quite long. It was built to accommodate the VIP of the Taisho Emperor's coronation in Taisho 4. The building is appreciated as a high-quality Shoin style structure (*3) using Japanese hemlock. (two-story, 7m × 11.9m)
On the ground floor, there are a twelve-and-a-half tatami mat guest room, a five tatami mat altar room and ten tatami mat room in a line. All rooms are equipped with a tokonoma alcove in the north side and a 98cm width wooden edge in east, south and north sides surrounding the rooms. The second floor is also similar in design. The main guest room is located in the front (east) side, which is supposed to be due to some condition of the site at that time. The square pillar made of Japanese hemlock mainly supports the building. The ground floor is a dignified Shoin style structure using nageshi architraves and the second floor, on the other hand, is a Sukiya style structure (*4) using many kinds of wood instead of nageshi.
The wide edge in the south side of the rooms is used as a corridor connecting to the main building. This style of the architecture, used to create a corridor on the side of the room to divide the guest rooms and the private rooms, had been seen in large-scale townhouses since around Taisho 4 when this building was built. It could be said that this building was one of the first cases.
The warehouse was relocated on the back of the guest house as mentioned previously and then one new warehouse was built next to the old one. Both are a two-story Kiritsuma roof structure.
(*3) Shoin style structure: A style of construction, which includes an alcove and staggered shelves, commonly recognized as the basis for modern Japanese home.
(*4) Sukiya style structure: A style of ceremonial tea house.
The front garden of the main building and the guest house are divided into two parts by the tea house located between the two buildings. The tea house was built in Showa 14 (5.8m × 3.9m) and consists of a four-and-a-half tatami mat tea room, a small kitchen, a restroom and a storeroom. The tea room is equipped with the nijiriguchi entrance in the south side and the kininguchi entrance in the north side. The gardens of both north and south side were designed as Roji, a traditional tea garden. The authentic interior design contains many of the shitajimado windows (*5), three kinds of wooden ceilings with traditional Japanese patterns.
(*5) shitajimado windows: A bamboo lattice windows with a wooden frame, with special care taken to keep the base of the bamboo frame visible and natural in appearance.
This building is an early example of the architecture that introduced the design of reception rooms to ordinary townhouses. It supposed that the Taisho Emperor's coronation created a trend of such architecture. Chion-sha has important significance in the history of Kyo-machiya (traditional wooden townhouse in Kyoto).
Six tatami mat room in the main building
座敷棟 一階内部 西より東をみる
The ground floor in the guest house (seen from the east)
座敷棟 一階内部 東より西をみる
The ground floor of the main building (seen from the west)
Building layout (1/500)
一階平面図 (1/350) IF floor plan (1/350)
茶室 Tea room